June 2016 Web Server Survey

In the June 2016 survey we received responses from 1,045,534,808 sites and 5,951,685 web-facing computers. This reflects an increase of 12 million sites, along with a modest gain of 4,700 computers.

Apache regained the lead from Microsoft this month, with a large increase of 60 million sites taking its total up to 360 million, while Microsoft lost 24 million. Microsoft enjoyed a brief foray at the top in April and May, thanks to a proliferation of link farming sites, but now stands 18 million sites behind Apache.

Apache's net growth included only 14 million new websites – the remainder consisted of existing websites that switched to Apache after previously using other web server software. Most notably, 52 million sites switched from Tengine to Apache, while 12 million switched from Microsoft. The number of websites using Tengine fell by more than 60%, largely as a result of the migration to Apache. Most of the sites involved in this switch were hosted by OVH in Canada, and not only changed server vendor, but also moved to a different hosting company—Data Foundry—in the United States.

Although the number of Tengine websites fell to 29 million, the number of active sites using Tengine actually increased slightly to 1.8 million. In a similar vein, the number of active sites running Apache fell by 630,000, even though the total number of sites grew by more than 60 million.

Out of the largest vendors, Microsoft has the lowest proportion of active sites, with only 4.8% of its 340 million sites being active, while Tengine's proportion has crept up to 6.3%. Both are significantly lower than Apache's proportion of 22.3% and nginx's 21.6%.

Newer versions of web server software generally attract a much higher proportion of active sites. For example, 56% of sites running on Microsoft IIS 10 (which will be included with Windows Server 2016, but is already available for Windows 10) are classified as active, while 23% of sites running IIS 8.5 are active, along with 14% of IIS 8.0 sites. This proportion dwindles to only 2.8% by the time we consider IIS 6.0, which remains a very popular choice of server in China despite no longer being supported by Microsoft.

nginx also demonstrates this trend, with the largest number of its active sites running on the latest 1.10.x stable branch. More than half of all sites using this version are active.

Across all versions, nginx continues to muscle its way into the market with confidence. This month it gained almost a million active sites, along with an additional 31,000 web-facing computers, giving it the largest growth in these important metrics. Conversely, Apache lost 26,000 computers, while Microsoft lost 4,500.

nginx has also continued to grow its presence amongst the top million websites, where it is now used by 27.6% of sites. Apache continues to lead with a 43.7% share of this market, although its share has generally been on the decline since 2011. If current trends continue, nginx could possibly take the lead from Apache within the next couple of years.

Total number of websites

Web server market share

DeveloperMay 2016PercentJune 2016PercentChange
Apache300,447,47029.06%360,458,01834.48%5.41
Microsoft366,964,00935.50%342,605,66632.77%-2.73
nginx163,902,97115.85%169,316,54716.19%0.34
Google21,567,2522.09%21,662,6732.07%-0.01
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DigitalOcean becomes the second largest hosting company in the world

DigitalOcean has grown to become the second-largest hosting company in the world in terms of web-facing computers, and shows no signs of slowing down.

The virtual private server provider has shown phenomenal growth over the past two-and-a-half years. First seen in our December 2012 survey, DigitalOcean today hosts more than 163,000 web-facing computers, according to Netcraft's May 2015 Hosting Provider Server Count. This gives it a small lead over French company OVH, which has been pushed down into third place.

Amazing growth at DigitalOcean

Amazing growth at DigitalOcean

DigitalOcean's only remaining challenge will be to usurp Amazon Web Services, which has been the largest hosting company since September 2012. However, it could be quite some time until we see DigitalOcean threatening to gain this ultimate victory: Although DigitalOcean started growing at a faster rate than Amazon towards the end of 2013, Amazon still has more than twice as many web-facing computers than DigitalOcean today.

Nonetheless, DigitalOcean seems committed to growing as fast as it can. Since October 2014, when we reported that DigitalOcean had become the fourth largest hosting company, DigitalOcean has introduced several new features to attract developers to its platform. Its metadata service enables Droplets (virtual private servers) to query information about themselves and bootstrap new servers, and a new DigitalOcean DNS service brought more scalability and reliability to creating and resolving DNS entries, allowing near-instantaneous propagation of domain names.

Other companies are also helping to fuel growth at DigitalOcean. Mesosphere created an automated provisioning tool which lets customers use DigitalOcean's resources to create self-healing environments that offer fault tolerance and scalability with minimal configuration. Mesosphere's API makes it possible to manage thousands of Droplets as if they were a single computer, and with DigitalOcean's low pricing models and SSD-only storage, it's understandable how this arrangement can appeal to particularly power-hungry developers.

In January, DigitalOcean introduced its first non-Linux operating system, FreeBSD. Although less commonly used these days, FreeBSD has garnered a reputation for reliability and it was not unusual to see web-facing FreeBSD servers with literally years of uptime in the past. In April, DigitalOcean launched the second version of its API, which lets developers programmatically control their Droplets and resources within the DigitalOcean cloud by sending simple HTTP requests.

DigitalOcean added a new Frankfurt region in April 2015.

DigitalOcean added a new Frankfurt region in April 2015.

More recently, DigitalOcean introduced a new European hosting region in Frankfurt, Germany. This is placed on the German Commercial Internet Exchange (DE-CIX), which is the largest internet exchange point worldwide by peak traffic, allowing Droplets hosted in this region to offer good connectivity to neighbouring countries. (An earlier announcement of an underwater Atlantis datacenter sadly turned out to be an April Fool's joke, despite the obvious benefits of free cooling).

Even so, Amazon still clearly dwarfs DigitalOcean in terms of variety of features and value-added services. Notably, Amazon offers a larger variety of operating systems on its EC2 cloud instances (including Microsoft Windows), and its global infrastructure is spread much wider. For example, EC2 instances can be hosted in America, Ireland, Germany, Singapore, Japan, Australia, Brazil, China or even within an isolated GloudGov US region, which allows US government agencies to move sensitive workloads into the cloud whilst fulfilling specific regulatory and compliance requirements. As well as these EC2 regions, Amazon also offers additional AWS Edge Locations to be used by its CloudFront content delivery network and its Route 53 DNS service.

Yet, as well as its low pricing, part of the appeal of using DigitalOcean could lie within its relative simplicity compared with Amazon's bewilderingly vast array of AWS services (AppStream, CloudFormation, ElastiCache, Glacier, Kinesis, Cognito, Simple Workflow Service, SimpleDB, SQS and Data Pipeline to name but a few). Signing up and provisioning a new Droplet on DigitalOcean is remarkably quick and easy, and likely fulfils the needs of many users. DigitalOcean's consistent and strong growth serves as testament to this, and will make the next year very interesting for the two at the top.

February 2016 Web Server Survey

In the February 2016 survey we received responses from 933,892,520 sites and 5,796,210 web-facing computers.

Microsoft has edged closer towards Apache, with an increase of 16.1 million sites bringing its total up by 6.14% to 279 million. Apache's relatively modest growth of 0.66% has put Microsoft within 3 percentage points of Apache's leading market share of 32.8%.

In terms of web-facing computers, Apache maintains a much clearer lead with a 47.8% share of the market. Microsoft also takes second place by this metric, albeit with a share that is more than 20 percentage points behind Apache. However, both Apache and Microsoft suffered small losses in market share as nginx continues to exhibit strong growth: This month, nginx gained 21,100 computers, increasing its market share by 0.26 points to 13.96%.

nginx 1.9.11 mainline was released on 9th February. This version introduced support for dynamic modules, enabling selective loading of both third-party and some native modules at runtime. In previous versions, nginx modules had to be statically linked into an nginx binary built from source, causing the module to be loaded every time even if it was not going to be used.

The latest version of Microsoft Internet Information Services, IIS 10.0, is still very rare in the wild, as its primary deployment platform (Windows Server 2016) has yet to be released. Fewer than 5,000 websites are currently using IIS 10.0, and these are being served either from technical preview versions of Windows Server 2016, or from Windows 10 machines.

The latest technical preview version of Windows Server 2016 also supports a headless deployment option known as Nano Server. This is a stripped-down version of Windows Server, without a graphical interface and a few other features that are not essential for modern web applications. As a result, it typically requires fewer updates to be installed – and consequently, fewer reboots, too.

Despite losing a small amount of market share, Apache also showed a reasonable growth of 15,600 computers. Similar to last month, a significant proportion of this growth was due to the appearance of more Western Digital My Cloud consumer storage devices.

The total number of My Cloud devices in the survey now stands at 583,400, which is 68,400 more than last month; however, the number of devices that are exposed directly to the internet grew by only 11,100.

Western Digital is using Amazon AWS to host the servers that proxy requests to My Cloud devices in Relay mode. Most of these relay servers have been configured to serve a few thousand devices each, and so the 331,000 devices that are currently using Relay mode contribute fewer than 200 computers towards Apache's total.

Interestingly, while most web-facing My Cloud devices are hosted in the US, more than half of the *.wd2go.com hostnames used by the relay servers are hosted in Amazon's EU regions.

Total number of websites

Web server market share

DeveloperJanuary 2016PercentFebruary 2016PercentChange
Apache304,271,06133.56%306,292,55732.80%-0.76
Microsoft262,471,88628.95%278,593,04129.83%0.88
nginx141,443,63015.60%137,459,39114.72%-0.88
Google20,799,0872.29%20,640,0582.21%-0.08
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HTTP Public Key Pinning: You’re doing it wrong!

HTTP Public Key Pinning (HPKP) is a security feature that can prevent fraudulently issued TLS certificates from being used to impersonate existing secure websites.

Our previous article detailed how this technology works, and looked at some of the sites that have dared to use this powerful but risky feature. Notably, very few sites are making use of HPKP: Only 0.09% of the certificates in Netcraft's March 2016 SSL Survey are served with HPKP headers, which equates to fewer than 4,100 certificates in total.

But more surprisingly, around a third of these sites are using the HPKP header incorrectly, which effectively disables HPKP. Consequently, the total number of certificates that are actually using HPKP is effectively less than 3,000.

Firefox's developer console reveals that this site has failed to include a backup pin, and so its HPKP policy is ignored by the browser.Failing to include a backup pin is the most common type of mistake made by sites that try to use HPKP.

Firefox's developer console reveals that this site has failed to include a backup pin, and so its HPKP policy is ignored by the browser.
Failing to include a backup pin is the most common type of mistake made by sites that try to use HPKP.

HPKP is the best way of protecting a site from being impersonated by mis-issued certificates, but it is easy for this protection to backfire with severe consequences. Fortunately, most misconfigurations simply mean that a site's HPKP policy will be ignored by browsers. The site's administrators might not realise it, but this situation is essentially the same as not using HPKP at all.

How can it go wrong?

Our previous article demonstrated a few high-profile websites that were using HPKP to varying degrees. However, plenty of other sites have bungled HPKP to the extent that it simply does not work.

Zero max-age

Every HPKP policy must specify a max-age directive, which suggests how long a browser should regard the website as a "Known Pinned Host". The most commonly used max-age value is 5184000 seconds (60 days). Nearly 1,200 servers use this value, while around 900 use 2592000 seconds (30 days).

But around 70 sites feature pointlessly short max-age values, such as 5 or 10 seconds. These durations are far too short to be effective, as a victim's browser would rapidly forget about these known pinned hosts.

Additionally, a few sites explicitly specify a max-age of zero along with their public key pins. These sites are therefore not protected by HPKP, and are in some cases needlessly sending this header to every client request. It is possible that they are desperately trying to remove a previously set HPKP policy, but this approach obviously cannot be relied upon to remove cached pins from browsers that do not visit the site in the meantime. These sites would therefore have to continue using a certificate chain that conforms to their previous HPKP policy, or run the risk of locking out a few stragglers.

One of the sites that sets a zero max-age is https://vodsmarket.com. Even if this max-age were to be increased, HPKP would still not be enabled because there is only one pinned public key:

Public-Key-Pins: pin-sha256="sbKjNAOqGTDfcyW1mBsy9IOtS2XS4AE+RJsm+LcR+mU="; max-age=0;

Another example can be seen on https://wondershift.biz, which pins two certificates' public keys. Again, even if the max-age were to be increased, this policy would still not take effect because there are no backup pins specified (both of the pinned keys appear in the site's certificate chain):

Public-Key-Pins: pin-sha256="L7mpy8M0VvQcWm7Yyx1LFK/+Ao280UZkz5U38Qk5G5g=";
    pin-sha256="EohwrK1N7rr3bRQphPj4j2cel+B2d0NNbM9PWHNDXpM=";
    includeSubDomains;
    max-age=0;
    report-uri="https://yahvehyireh.com/incoming/hpkp/index.php"

Wrong pin directives

Each pinned public key must be specified via a separate pin-sha256 directive, and each value must be a SHA256 hash; but more than 1% of servers that try to use HPKP fail to specify these pins correctly.

For example, the Department of Technology at Aichi University of Education exhibits the following header on https://www.auetech.aichi-edu.ac.jp:

Public-Key-Pins: YEnyhAxjrMAeVokI+23XQv1lzV3IBb3zs+BA2EUeLFI=";
    max-age=5184000;
    includeSubDomains

This header appears to include a single public key hash, but it omits the pin-sha256 directive entirely. No browser will make any sense of this attempted policy.

In another example, the Fast Forward Imaging Customer Interface at https://endor.ffwimaging.com does something very peculiar. It uses a pin-sha512 directive, which is not supported by the RFC – but in any case, the value it is set to is clearly not a SHA512 hash:

Public-Key-Pins: pin-sha512="base64+info1="; max-age=31536000; includeSubDomains

Some sites try to use SHA1 public key hashes, which are also unsupported:

Public-Key-Pins: pin-sha1='ewWxG0o6PsfOgu9uOCmZ0znd8h4='; max-age=2592000; includeSubdomains

This one uses pin-sha instead of pin-sha256:

Public-Key-Pins: pin-sha="xZ4wUjthUJ0YMBsdGg/bXHUjpEec5s+tHDNnNtdkwq8=";
    max-age=5184000; includeSubDomains

And this one refers to the algorithm "SHA245", which does not exist:

Public-Key-Pins: pin-sha245="pyCA+ftfVu/P+92tEhZWnVJ4BGO78XWwNhyynshV9C4=";
    max-age=31536000; includeSubDomains

The above example was most likely a typo, as is the following example, which specifies a ping-sha256 value:

Public-Key-Pins: ping-sha256="5C8kvU039KouVrl52D0eZSGf4Onjo4Khs8tmyTlV3nU=";
    max-age=2592000; includeSubDomains

These are careless mistakes, but it is notable that these types of mistake alone account for more than 1% of all certificates that set the Public-Key-Pins header. The net effect of these mistakes is that HPKP is not enabled on these sites.

Only one pinned public key

As we emphasised in our previous article, it is essential that a secure site should specify at least two public key pins when deploying HPKP. At least one of these should be a backup pin, so that the website can recover from losing control of its deployed certificate. If the website owner still possesses the private key for one of the backup certificates, the site can revert to using one of the other pinned public keys without any browsers refusing to connect.

But 25% of servers that use HPKP specify only one public key pin. This means that HPKP will not be enabled on the sites that use these certificates.

To prevent sites from inadvertently locking out all of their visitors, and to force the use of backup pins, browsers should only cache a site's pinned public keys if the Public-Key-Pins header contains two or more hashes. At least one of these must correspond to a certificate that is in the site's certificate chain, and at least one must be a backup pin (if a hash cannot be found in the certificate chain, then the browser will assume it is a backup pin without verifying its existence).

https://xcloud.zone is an example of a site that only sets one public key pin:

Public-Key-Pins: pin-sha256="DKvbzsurIZ5t5PvMaiEGfGF8dD2MA7aTUH9dbVtTN28=";
    max-age=2592000; includeSubDomains

This single pin corresponds to the subscriber certificate issued to xcloud.zone. Despite the 30-day max-age value, this lonely public key hash will never be cached by a browser. Consequently, HPKP is not enabled on this site, and the header might as well be missing entirely.

No pins at all

As well as the 1,000+ servers that only have one pinned public key, some HPKP headers neglect to specify any pins at all, and a few try to set values that are not actually hashes (which has the same effect as not setting any pins at all). For example, the Hide My Ass! forum at https://forum.hidemyass.com sets the following:

Public-Key-Pins: pin-sha256="<Subject Public Key Information (SPKI)>";
    max-age=2592000; includeSubDomains

The ProPublica SecureDrop site at https://securedrop.propublica.org also made a subtle mistake last month by forgetting to enclose its pinned public key hashes in double-quotes:

Public-Key-Pins: max-age=86400;
    pin-sha256=rhdxr9/utGWqudj8bNbG3sEcyMYn5wspiI5mZWkHE8A=
    pin-sha256=lT09gPUeQfbYrlxRtpsHrjDblj9Rpz+u7ajfCrg4qDM=

The HPKP RFC mandates that the Base64-encoded public key hashes must be quoted strings, so the above policy would not have worked. ProPublica has since fixed this problem, as well as adding a third pin to the header.

ProPublica is an independent newsroom that produces investigative journalism in the public interest. It provides a SecureDrop site to allow tips or documents to be submitted securely; however, until recently the HPKP policy on this site was ineffectual.

ProPublica is an independent newsroom that produces investigative journalism in the public interest. It provides a SecureDrop site to allow tips or documents to be submitted securely; however, until recently the HPKP policy on this site was ineffectual.

If companies that specialise in online privacy and secure anonymous filesharing are making these kinds of mistake on their own websites, it's not surprising that so many other websites are also getting it wrong.

At least two pins, but no backup pins

A valid HPKP policy must specify at least two pins, and at least one of these must be a backup pin. A browser will assume that a pin corresponds to a backup certificate if none of the certificates in the site's certificate chain correspond to that pin.

The Samba mailing list website fails to include any backup pins. Consequently, its HPKP policy is not enforced.

The Samba mailing list website fails to include any backup pins. Consequently, its HPKP policy is not enforced.

The Samba mailing lists site at https://lists.samba.org specifies two pinned public key hashes, but both of these appear in its certificate chain. Consequently, a browser will not apply this policy because there is no evidence of a backup pin. HPKP is effectively disabled on this site.

Incidentally, the Let's Encrypt Authority X1 cross-signed intermediate certificate has the most commonly pinned public key in our survey. More than 9% feature this in their set of pins, although it should never be pinned exclusively because Let's Encrypt is not guaranteed to always use their X1 certificate. Topically, just a few days ago, Let's Encrypt started to issue all certificates via its new Let's Encrypt Authority X3 intermediate certificate in order to be compatible with older Windows XP clients; but fortunately, the new X3 certificate uses the same keys as the X1 certificate, and so any site that had pinned the public key of the X1 certificate will continue to be accessible when it renews its subscriber certificate, without having to change its current HPKP policy.

The next most common pin belongs to the COMODO RSA Domain Validation Secure Server CA certificate. This pin is used by more than 6% of servers in our survey, all of which – despite the use of HPKP – could be vulnerable to man-in-the-middle attacks if Comodo were to be hacked again.

Pinning only the public keys of subscriber certificates would offer the best security against these kinds of attack, but it is fairly common to also pin the keys of root and intermediate certificates to reduce the risk of "bricking" a website in the event of a key loss. This approach is very common among Let's Encrypt customers, as the default letsencrypt client software generates a new key pair each time a certificate is renewed. If the public key of the subscriber certificate were to be pinned, the pinning would no longer be valid when it is renewed.

Setting HPKP policies over HTTP

Some sites set HPKP headers over unencrypted HTTP connections, which is also ineffectual. For example, the Internet Storm Center website at www.dshield.org sets the following header on its HTTP site:

Public-Key-Pins: pin-sha256="oBPvhtvElQwtqQAFCzmHX7iaOgvmPfYDRPEMP5zVMBQ=";
    pin-sha256="Ofki57ad70COg0ke3x80cbJ62Tt3c/f3skTimJdpnTw=";
    max-age=2592000; report-uri="https://isc.sans.org/badkey.html"

The Public Key Pinning Extension for HTTP RFC states that browsers must ignore HPKP headers that are received over non-secure transport, and so the above header has no effect other than to consume additional bandwidth.

2.2.2.  HTTP Request Type
  Pinned Hosts SHOULD NOT include the PKP header field in HTTP
  responses conveyed over non-secure transport.  UAs MUST ignore any
  PKP header received in an HTTP response conveyed over non-secure
  transport.

One very good reason for ignoring HPKP policies that are set over unencrypted connections is to prevent "hostile pinning" by man-in-the-middle attackers. If an attacker were to inject a set of pins that the site owner does not control—and if the browser were to blindly cache these values—he would be able to create a junk policy on behalf of that website. This would prevent clients from accessing the site for a long period, without the attacker having to maintain his position as a man-in-the-middle.

If a visitor instead browses to https://www.dshield.org (using HTTPS), an HSTS policy is applied which forces future requests to use HTTPS. The HTTPS site also sets an HPKP header which is then accepted and cached by compatible browsers. However, as the HTTP site does not automatically redirect to the HTTPS site, it is likely that many visitors will never benefit from these HSTS or HPKP polices, even though they are correctly implemented on the HTTPS site.

In another bizarre example, HPKP headers are set by the HTTP site at http://www.msvmgroup.com, even though there is no corresponding HTTPS website (it does accept connections on port 443, but does not present a subscriber certificate that is valid for this hostname).

Not quite got round to it yet...

A few sites that use the Public-Key-Pins header have not quite got around to implementing it yet, such as https://justamagic.ru, which sets the following value:

Public-Key-Pins: TODO

Using HPKP headers to broadcast skepticism

One security company's website – https://websec-test.com – uses the Public-Key-Pins header to express its own skepticisms over the usefulness of HPKP:

Public-Key-Pins: This is like the most useless header I have ever seen.
    Preventing MITM, c'mon, whoever can't trust his own network shouldn't
    enter sensitive data anywhere.

Violation reports that will never be received

The Public-Key-Pins header supports an optional report-uri directive. In the event of a pin validation failure, the user's browser should send a report to this address, in addition to blocking access to the site. These reports are obviously valuable, as they will usually be the first indication that something is wrong.

However, if the report-uri address uses HTTPS, and is also known pinned host, the browser must also carry out pinning checks on this address when the report is sent. This makes it foolish to specify a report-uri that uses the same hostname as the site that is using HPKP.

An example of this configuration blunder can be seen on https://yahvehyireh.com, which sets the following Public-Key-Pins header:

Public-Key-Pins: pin-sha256="y+PfuAS+Dx0OspfM9POCW/HRIqMqsa83jeXaOECu1Ns=";
    pin-sha256="klO23nT2ehFDXCfx3eHTDRESMz3asj1muO+4aIdjiuY=";
    pin-sha256="EohwrK1N7rr3bRQphPj4j2cel+B2d0NNbM9PWHNDXpM=";
    includeSubDomains; max-age=0;
     report-uri="https://yahvehyireh.com/incoming/hpkp/index.php"

This header instructs the browser to send pinning validation failure reports to https://yahvehyireh.com/incoming/hpkp/index.php. However, if there were to be a pinning validation failure on yahvehyireh.com, then the browser would be unable to send any reports because the report-uri itself would also fail the pinning checks by virtue of using the same hostname.

Incidentally, Chrome 46 introduced support for a newer header, Public-Key-Pins-Report-Only, which instructs the browser to perform identical pinning checks to those specified by the Public-Key-Pins header, but it will never block a request when no pinned keys are encountered; instead, the browser will send a report to a URL specified by a report-uri parameter, and the user will be allowed to continue browsing the site. This mechanism would make it safe for site administrators to test the deployment of HPKP on their sites, without inadvertently introducing a denial of service.

Summary

The proportion of secure servers that use HPKP headers is woefully low at only 0.09%, but to make matters worse, many of these few HPKP policies have been implemented incorrectly and do not work as intended.

Without delving into developer settings, browsers offer no visible indications that a site has an invalid HPKP policy, and so it is likely that many website administrators have no idea that their attempts at implementing HPKP have failed. Around a third of the sites that attempt to set an HPKP policy have got it wrong, and consequently behave as if there was no HPKP policy at all. Every response from these servers will include the unnecessary overhead of a header containing a policy that will ultimately be ignored by all browsers.

But there is still hope for the masses: A more viable alternative to HPKP might arise from an Internet-Draft entitled TLS Server Identity Pinning with Tickets. It proposes to extend TLS with opaque tickets, similar to those being used for TLS session resumption, as a way to pin a server's identity. This feature would allow a client to ensure that it is connecting to the right server, even in the presence of a fraudulently issued certificate, but has a significant advantage over HPKP in that no manual management actions would be required. If this draft comes to fruition, and is subsequently implemented by browsers and servers, this ticket-based approach to pinning could potentially see a greater uptake than HPKP has.

Netcraft offers a range of services that can be used to detect and defeat large-scale pharming attacks, and security testing services that identify man-in-the-middle vulnerabilities in web application and mobile apps. Contact security-sales@netcraft.com for more information.

September 2015 Web Server Survey

In the September 2015 survey we received responses from 892,743,625 sites and 5,438,101 web-facing computers. Both of these key metrics grew this month, with net gains of 18 million sites and 47,000 computers.

Microsoft made by far the largest gain in hostnames this month, with an additional 33.6 million sites bringing its total up to 265 million. Combined with a 15.9 million loss in Apache-powered sites, the difference between Microsoft's and Apache's market shares has now halved: Microsoft's share went up by 3.22 percentage points to 29.68%, while Apache's fell by 2.55 to 34.96%, reducing Apache's lead to just over five percentage points.

However, September's growth in web-facing computers paints a different picture, with Apache's net gain of 19,800 computers being more than six times higher than Microsoft's. Despite this, both Microsoft and Apache lost market share this month, while nginx – which gained the most web-facing computers in September (+22,100) – grew its share to nearly 13%. With an additional 6.9 million sites bumping its site share up to 15.60%, nginx was the only major server vendor to increase its market share in both sites and computers this month.

Despite no longer being supported by Microsoft, the number of websites using Microsoft IIS 6.0 (which typically runs on Windows Server 2003) has since grown by 19% and accounted for much of the overall Microsoft hostname growth this month. 153 million websites are now using Microsoft IIS 6.0, compared with 129 million in July; however, the number of web-facing computers using IIS 6.0 has fallen by 6%, and the number of active sites fell by 16%.

China accounted for around a third of this month's overall growth in web facing computers, outpacing the growth seen in the United States and Germany by a factor of three. Even so, China was responsible for only a tiny fraction of this month's site growth. Microsoft Windows continues to be the preferred hosting platform for computers in China, where it is currently used by 42% of all web-facing computers and 43% of all sites. Astoundingly, over half of these Windows computers are running Windows Server 2003, and some Chinese hosting providers continue to provide new installations of this deprecated operating system.

Amongst the world's top million websites, nginx has continued to increase its market share and now powers more than twice as many sites as Microsoft. Apache's share has been steadily declining over the past few years mostly as a result of nginx's gains, but it looks set to remain the dominant server vendor within the top million for a while longer, as it is still used by more than twice as many sites as nginx.

Total number of websites

Web server market share

DeveloperAugust 2015PercentSeptember 2015PercentChange
Apache327,985,96837.51%312,106,63834.96%-2.55
Microsoft231,429,14626.47%265,010,74629.68%3.22
nginx132,443,39115.15%139,297,80415.60%0.46
Google19,933,0952.28%19,683,0872.20%-0.07
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Google’s POODLE affects oodles

97% of SSL web servers are likely to be vulnerable to POODLE, a vulnerability that can be exploited in version 3 of the SSL protocol. POODLE, in common with BEAST, allows a man-in-the-middle attacker to extract secrets from SSL sessions by forcing the victim's browser into making many thousands of similar requests. As a result of the fallback behaviour in all major browsers, connections to web servers that support both SSL 3 and more modern versions of the protocol are also at risk.

The Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) protocol is used by millions of websites to protect confidential data in transit across the internet using strong cryptography. The protocol was designed by Netscape in the mid 1990s and was first released to the public as SSL 2 in February 1995. It was quickly replaced by SSL 3 in 1996 after serious security flaws were discovered. SSL 3 was replaced by the IETF-defined Transport Layer Security (TLS) version 1.0 in January 1999 with relatively few changes. Since TLS 1's release, TLS 1.1 and TLS 1.2 have succeeded it and should be used in its place wherever possible.

sslv3-vulnerable6

POODLE's bark may be worse than its bite

Unlike Heartbleed, POODLE can be used to attack client-server connections and is inherent to the protocol itself, rather than any one implementation such as OpenSSL or Microsoft's SChannel. In order to exploit it, an attacker must modify the victim's network traffic, know how the targeted secret information is structured (such as where a session cookie appears) and be able to force the victim into making a large number of requests.

Each SSL connection is split up into a number of chunks, known as SSL records. When using a block cipher, such as Triple DES in CBC mode, each block is mixed in with the next block and the record then padded to be a whole number of blocks long (8-bytes in the case of Triple DES). An attacker with network access can carefully manipulate the ordering of the cipher-blocks within a record to influence the decryption and exploit the padding oracle. If the attacker has been lucky (there's a 1 in 256 chance), she will have matched the correct value for the padding length in her manipulated record and correctly guessed the value of a single byte of the secret. This can be repeated to reveal the entire targeted secret.

SSL 3's padding is particularly easy to exploit as it relies on a single byte at the end of the padding, the padding length. Consequently an attacker must force the victim to make only 256×n requests for n bytes of secret to be revealed. TLS 1.0 changed this padding mechanism, requiring the padding bytes themselves to have a specific value making the attack far less likely to succeed.

The POODLE vulnerability makes session hijacking attacks against web applications reasonably feasible for a correctly-positioned attacker. For example, a typical 32-byte session cookie could be retrieved after eavesdropping just over 8,000 HTTPS requests using SSL 3. This could be achieved by tricking the victim into visiting a specially crafted web page which uses JavaScript to send the necessary requests.

Use of SSL v3

Within the top 1,000 SSL sites, SSL 3 remained very widely supported yesterday, with 97% of SSL sites accepting an SSL 3 handshake. CitiBank and Bank of America both support SSL 3 exclusively and presumably are vulnerable.

move-to-tls1

A number of SSL sites have already reacted to this vulnerability by disabling support for SSL 3, including CloudFlare and LinkedIn. On Tuesday 14th, the most common configuration within the top 1,000 SSL sites was to support SSL 3.0 all the way through to TLS 1.2, with almost two-thirds of popular sites taking this approach. One day later, this remains the most popular configuration; however, TLS 1.0 is now the minimum version for 11%.

Microsoft Internet Explorer 6 does not support TLS 1.0 or greater by default and may be the most notable victim of disabling SSL 3 internet-wide. Now 13 years old, IE6 was the default browser released with Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP in 2001 and will remain supported in Windows Server 2003 until July 2015. Despite its age and the end of Microsoft's support for Windows XP, IE6 remains popular, accounting for more 3.8% of web visits worldwide, and 12.5% in China. This vulnerability may ring the death knell for IE6 and Windows XP.

However, unless SSL 3 is completely disabled on the server side, a client supporting SSL 3 may still be vulnerable even if the server supports more recent versions of TLS. An attacker can take advantage of browser fallback behaviour to force otherwise secure connections to use SSL 3 in place of TLS version 1 or above.

SSL version negotiation

At the start of an SSL connection, servers and clients mutually agree upon a version of SSL/TLS to use for the remainder of the connection. The client's first message to the server includes its maximum supported version of the protocol, the server then compares the client's maximum version against its own maximum version to pick the highest mutually supported version.

While this mechanism protects against version downgrade attacks in theory, most browsers have an additional fallback mechanism that retries a connection attempt with successively lower version numbers until it succeeds in negotiating a connection or it reaches the lowest acceptable version. This additional fallback mechanism has proven necessary for practical interoperability with some TLS servers and corporate man-in-the-middle devices which, rather than gracefully downgrading when presented with a non-supported version of TLS, they instead terminate the connection prematurely.

An attacker with appropriate network access can exploit this behaviour to force a TLS connection to be downgraded by forging Handshake Alert messages. The browser will take the Handshake Alert message as a signal that the remote server (or some intermediate device) has version negotiation bugs and the browser will retry the connection with a lower maximum version in the initial Client Hello message.

handshake-alert

Operation of a forced downgrade to SSL 3 against a modern browser.

The fallback mechanism was previously not a security issue as it never results in the use of a protocol version that neither the client nor server will accept. However, those with clients that have not yet been updated to disable support for SSL 3 are relying on the server to have disabled SSL 3. What remains is a chicken and egg problem, where modern clients support SSL 3 in order to retain support for legacy servers, and modern servers retain support for SSL 3 for legacy clients.

There is, however, a proposed solution in the form of an indicator (an SCSV) in the fallback connection to inform compatible servers that this connection is a fallback and to reject the connection unless the fallback was expected. Google Chrome and Google's web sites already support this SCSV indicator.


Firefox 32

Chrome 40

IE 11

Opera 25

Safari 7.1
TLS 1.2 TLS 1.2 x 3 TLS 1.2 TLS 1.2 x 3 TLS 1.2
TLS 1.1 TLS 1.1 TLS 1.1
TLS 1.0 TLS 1.0 TLS 1.0 TLS 1.0 TLS 1.0
SSL 3.0 SSL 3.0 SSL 3.0 SSL 3.0 SSL 3.0

Comparison of browser fallback behaviour

We tested five major browsers with an attack based on the forged Handshake Alert method outlined above, and found that each browser has a variant of this fallback behaviour. Both Chrome and Opera try TLS 1.2 three times before trying to downgrade the maximum supported version, whereas the remainder immediately started downgrading. Curiously, Internet Explorer and Safari both skip TLS 1.1 and jump straight from TLS 1.2 to TLS 1.0.

Mitigation

Mitigation can take many forms: the fallback SCSV, disabling SSL 3 fallback, disabling SSL 3 in the client side, disabling SSL 3 in the server side, and disabling CBC cipher suites in SSL version 3. Each solution has its own problems, but the current trend is to disable SSL 3 entirely.

Disabling only the CBC cipher suites in SSL 3 leaves system administrators with a dilemma: RC4 is the only other practical choice and it has its fair share of problems making it an undesirable alternative. The SCSV requires support from both clients and servers, so may take some time before it is widely deployed enough to mitigate this vulnerability; it will also likely not be applied to legacy browsers such as IE 6.

Apache httpd can be configured to disable SSL 3 as follows:

SSLProtocol +TLSv1 +TLSv1.1 +TLSv1.2 -SSLv2 -SSLv3
Microsoft IIS and nginx can also be configured to avoid negotiating SSL version 3.

Firefox can be configured to disable support for SSL 3 by altering security.tls.version.min from 0 (SSL 3) to 1 (TLS 1) in about:config.

firefox-disable

Internet Explorer can also be configured to disable support using the Advanced tab in the Internet Options dialogue (found in the Control Panel). In a similar way, IE 6 users can also enable support for TLS 1.0.

internet-options-disable

Chrome can be configured to not use SSL 3 using a command line flag, --ssl-version-min=tls1.

Site Report

You can check which SSL sites are still using SSL 3 using the Netcraft Site Report:

Netcraft site report
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